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How to Fix those #bakingfails.

These croissants came out very dense, but will be cut, frozen and used for a decadent bread pudding!

Baking requires a lot of invested time and it can be really easy to get frustrated when it doesn’t work out. Instead of taking failure as a reason to give up, stop and consider what went wrong. It could be the temperature of your ingredients, your technique could need refining, it could be something as simple as your mood.
This baking-fail was a result of impatience on my part, and while I wish I was able to enjoy some homemade croissants this morning, I’ll have to settle for some from the boulangerie on the corner.

Remember that when you begin to bake, your failures can sometimes outnumber your successes. Don’t be discouraged, and above all, if they still taste good, do not throw out your failures!

Food waste is a huge problem. In 2016, The Atlantic reported that not only does the U.S. lead the world in the most food wasted, Americans waste about 50% of food that is produced. While a huge portion of this waste is the result of supermarkets throwing out undesirable products, consumers also have a responsibility to make sure they use the food they buy. Throwing out baked goods that still have a good flavor is completely unnecessary. Just because you didn’t get the result you wanted, it doesn’t mean that it needs to end up in the trash, unless you’ve made the grave mistake of confusing salt for sugar.

Here are a few tips on how to give your own baking failures a new life:

  1. Freeze your failures: If you don’t have time to use up your baking-fails right away, prepare them for use later by freezing them. Since you do not plan on using the baked goods as is, you don’t have to worry about the freezer drying them out. Frozen baked goods usually keep for 1-2 months. When you’re ready to use them, just defrost overnight for use the next day.
  2. Cookie dough: If you are making a cookie dough for the first time, test a small portion to see how it turns out. Cookie dough that spreads out too much can be spread out in a pan and made into cookie bars, just bake at 350 degrees F until set. Alternatively, already baked cookies can be crumbled and mixed with melted butter to make a cookie crust for pies and cheesecakes.
  3. Cake/Quick-Breads: If a cake or quick-bread comes out too dense, or crumbly, fear not! Crumble the failure and toast it in the oven for about 5 min at 350 degrees F to use on top of ice cream, or as a way to decorate the sides of a cake (you can also do this with cake trimmings). Toasted cake crumbles can last for about a month if they are stored in an air-tight container. You can also take un-toasted crumbles and use them to make a bread pudding, or cake pops.
  4. Yeasted Breads: If your bread is savory, you can cut it into cubes and use it for a savory bread pudding. This is a perfect breakfast dish for large groups! If the bread is on the sweeter end of the spectrum, it is a perfect candidate for a dessert bread pudding.
  5. Pie: Did your pie filling ooze out, resulting in a soupy mess? Just serve it in a nice bowl with a scoop of ice cream, pie is delicious in any iteration. If you want to up the plating game a bit, you can always place individual servings in oven-safe ramekins and top with meringue.

Do you have any baking-fails that you were able to save? Comment below with your own tips!

Salted Chocolate Chunk Cookies

Video Credit: Emily Chao Music Credit: Generationals

A great chocolate chip cookie has chocolate chunks, not chips. In fact, the original chocolate chip cookie was invented by Ruth Graves Wakefield in the 1930s completely by accident when she put chunks of chocolate in a cookie batter and hoped that the chunks would melt into the batter as it baked, ultimately resulting in a chocolate cookie. Instead, the result was what she termed the Toll House Cookie, named after the Toll House Inn that she owned at the time. Today, the variations on this cookie are numerous, just look at the cookie aisle in the supermarket. However, it is my personal opinion that a proper chocolate chip cookie should be devoured within 10-15 minutes of coming out of the oven while the chocolate is still melty and the center is still slightly gooey and warm. The edges of the cookie should be crisp enough that they crunch when you bite into them and there has to be a touch of salt to round out the flavor As with most things food-related, this is all a matter of preference, but I suggest you test out this recipe for a transcendental cookie experience.

Cookies require care when making them. You have to pay close attention to the way you prepare your dough and ingredients. For starters, have your butter and eggs at room temperature, this will ensure that the dough stays at a constant temperature while you make it and that all the ingredients can blend together harmoniously. The second, and probably most important thing is to pay attention to how you cream your butter and sugar. I will refer you to this excellent article on Cookie Science by Stella Parks. If you watch the attached video, you can see how much lighter the butter and sugar is after the creaming process. I like to cream my butter and sugar on low until it no longer looks sandy and then bring it up to medium/medium-high speed until it begins to have a pearl-like sheen. If you have read at Parks’ article, you will see that she also advocates scraping the bowl throughout the dough making process. This is absolutely key to making a great cookie dough. There is nothing worse than realizing that there are pockets of flour or uncreamed butter and sugar at the bottom of the mixing bowl when you are done mixing it.

Another CRUCIAL step in making chocolate chip cookies, or any cookies really, is letting your dough rest for at least 30 minutes in the freezer, or overnight in the fridge if you have time. If you bake off the dough straight from the mixing bowl, the dough will be too warm and will melt into cookies that are sad and flat. Since I really only like my cookies warm, I let my dough rest, weigh it all out, and keep the portioned cookie-dough balls in the freezer so I can have warm cookies whenever I want. Ok, enough from me, go forth and bake!

 

Salted Chocolate-Chunk Cookies

Note: I use sel guérande which a type of fleur de sel that has a bit of clay in it from the salt ponds it is harvested from. A large grain kosher salt, or sea salt would work well too but if you can get your hands on some sel guérande, buy it, it is absolutely beautiful as a finishing salt.

Ingredients:
8oz or 2 sticks unsalted butter, softened
¾ c white sugar
¾ c light brown sugar, packed
2 eggs
1 tsp vanilla extract, or ½ of a scraped vanilla bean
2 ½ cups all-purpose flour
1 tsp baking soda
2 tsp large grain sel guérande/fleur de sel (alternatively, 1 ½ tsp kosher or 1 tsp fine sea salt)
200g 72% dark chocolate, chopped into chunks

  1. Sift flour and baking soda together, mix in salt and set aside.
  2. Using a hand mixer or stand mixer with the paddle attachment, cream butter and sugar until light and fluffy, scraping bowl occasionally to ensure that the mixture is even.
  3. Add eggs and vanilla, one at a time allowing each egg to incorporate fully and scraping the bowl in between each addition.
  4. Slowly add dry mix, scraping the bowl occasionally to ensure an even mixture.
  5. Add chocolate chunks and mix on low until incorporated.
  6. Refrigerate dough overnight, or for at least 30 minutes in the freezer.
  7. Portion dough into 1 ½” balls and place them 2” apart on a parchment-lined baking sheet. If you love salt, sprinkle just a little on top of the cookies.
  8. Bake for 8-10 minutes at 375°F or 190°
  9. Allow cookies to cool at least 10 minutes before eating and enjoy!

Mushroom Risotto

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Photo Credit: Emily Chao

Exciting news everyone! I am working with my friend Emily Chao to put some videos up on the blog. She is an incredible editor and you should definitely check out her website to see some of the amazing videos she’s shot and edited. If you’re in New York for the Tribeca Film Festival, be sure to check out one of the more recent projects she has worked on called Lemon.

We wanted to try something simple just to see how the lighting was in the kitchen, so I wasn’t super careful when I was making this risotto. Some of the more culinary savvy among you may notice that I added the wine before the rice (Quelle horreur!), but the risotto turned out quite nice anyway.

I used morel mushrooms in this dish because they were so beautiful at the green grocer, but any assortment of wild mushrooms will do. If you make this dish with vegetable stock, it can very easily become a great vegetarian dish, and I would even suggest adding some asparagus or fresh peas to the mushrooms while sautéing to make an even heartier meal.

You may not need all the liquid in this recipe, and don’t be discouraged if it doesn’t work out the first time. Risotto is one of those dishes that you need to practice. A good risotto is slightly soupy and the rice grains should be distinguishable with a good bite to them, like pasta cooked al dente.

Mushroom Risotto
serves 3-4

8oz ariboro rice, rinsed
24 oz chicken or vegetable broth
4 tbs butter
2 shallots, minced
½ c dry white wine
1 c grated parmigiana-reggiano cheese, plus  more to finish
2 cups mushrooms, sliced
1 clove garlic, minced (I didn’t have any, but it really could have used some garlic)
Parsley, chopped
salt and pepper to taste

  1. Bring broth to a simmer and leave covered over low heat to keep warm.
  2. Over medium heat, melt 2 tbs of butter in a large sauce pan.
  3. Cook the shallots with some salt and pepper in the butter until they are translucent.
  4. Bring up heat to medium-high and add the rice, stir for about 1 minute.
  5. Add the wine and mix until it is mostly absorbed.
  6. Bring the temperature down to medium-low hear and add the broth one ladle at a time. Stir the mixture occasionally and wait until the liquid is mostly absorbed before adding more, this should take about 30 minutes. Taste as you go to see if the risotto needs more seasoning.
  7. As the rice gets close to being done, sautee the mushrooms and garlic over high heat with the remaining 1 oz of butter until they are browned.
  8. When the rice has a nice texture, add the grated cheese and mushrooms. mix in and serve warm with a drizzle of good olive oil, a dusting of cheese and chopped parsley.

 

White Bean Stew

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As a kid, I hated leftovers. I knew that as soon as I heard the ding of the microwave, I was sentenced to a bowl of a sadder, soggier version of the dinner I had eaten the night before. The flavors were sure to be muted, and the center of the bowl was most certainly going to be just lukewarm. I was a child with very high standards.

I wasn’t picky, I would eat almost everything (except Chicken Cacciatori, sorry mom). I just valued food diversity. So, when my mom told us that it was “fend for yourself night,” I would experiment in the kitchen to avoid leftovers. This meant that I only had the contents of the fridge and pantry to work with, and really forced me to be creative.

As an adult, I don’t have the same aversion to leftovers, because no one truly has the time or energy to cook a full meal every day. So, I have learned how to make dishes that actually improve with age. I have found that braising is the best technique to produce a dish like this, and although it takes time to cook in the oven. It can always be made the night before, and be gently reheated in the oven for a relatively quick weeknight meal. This dish is one of my favorites, and is a perfect alternative to the more traditional braised dishes that tend to be very heavy and hard to eat as the weather gets warmer.

I also like that I can make this as a vegetarian meal, but I usually add swiss-chard, spinach or kale. This recipe is pictured with a saffron tagliatelle that I found at a local Italian market, but it can be served with your favorite pasta, or some crusty bread and a light green salad. The dried white beans can also be substituted for 2 14oz cans of white beans if you are in a rush, but I really urge you to use dried beans.

White Bean Stew
with Garlic Sausage, Fennel, Onion and Carrots

8 oz dried white beans (preferably Cannellini or Great Northern)
1 clove garlic, whole
1 bayleaf
4 tbs olive oil
1 lb Italian or Toulouse sausage*, crumbled
1 onion, sliced ¼”
1 bulb fennel, sliced ¼”
2 carrots, peeled and sliced 1″
2 cloves garlic, minced
¼ c dry white wine
3 c bone broth and 1 c water**
salt and pepper to taste
Parsley, chopped (optional)

Soak Beans:
Boil 4 c water with whole garlic clove and 1 bayleaf Rinse dried beans and add to boiling water. Turn off and cover for 1 hour.

  1. Preheat oven to 350°f, with rack in the middle.
  2. Heat olive oil over medium-high heat in a dutch oven until it is shimmery and add the sausage, cook until just browned. Remove the sausage with a slotted spoon and set aside.
  3. Reduce heat to medium, and add the onion, fennel, garlic , and carrot. Cook until the onion is just barely translucent.
  4. Add the wine and scrape the browned bits from the bottom of the pan, reduce heat to low.
  5. Drain beans and discard the garlic clove, be sure to keep bay leaf. Add soaked beans and bay leaf to the pan, mix together.
  6. Add the sausage, or greens if you are making a vegetarian version.
  7. Pour in the broth, water, salt and pepper and bring to a simmer.
  8. Place dutch oven in the middle of the oven, and let cook uncovered for one hour.
  9. Stir and let cook another 30 min- 1hour, or until the beans are finished.
  10. Serve with chopped parsley over buttered pasta or crusty bread.***

To reheat: place in a 350°f oven until warmed through (about 30 minutes) or bring to a simmer on the stove.

*To make the dish vegetarian omit the sausage, and coarsely chop 1 bunch of spinach, swiss chard, or kale

**For vegetarian version use 4 cups vegetable stock. If you don’t have bone broth use 4 cups chicken broth.

***Try quinoa or brown rice pasta for a gluten free alternative or use a nice olive oil instead of butter to keep the dish vegan.

Sourdough BraveTart Bagels

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Bonus puppy shot of Archie hoping that I’ll drop this bagel.

This recipe is an adaptation of Stella Parks bagel recipe that replaces the commercial yeast with a wild-yeast/sourdough starter. If you don’t have a sourdough starter, use this King Arthur tutorial to get started! If you want to read about how I adapted this recipe check out this post. As this is a bread recipe, I am using gram measurements. If you don’t have a scale, I suggest Pebbly scale, or a similar flat-surface digital scale.

Starter:
I use whole wheat in the starter because it helps with yeast production, and I like the flavor. You can replace it with an equal measure of bread flour.

60g (~2 oz) mature 100% hydration starter
60g (~2 oz) room temp water
30 g(~1 oz) whole wheat flour
30 g (~1 oz) bread flour

Mix all the ingredients for the starter and let sit until it has reached peak activity, this can take anywhere from 8-12 hours depending on the activity of your starter and the temperature in your kitchen. If I am in a rush, sometimes I will place my starter in a warm place, or in the microwave with a mug of hot water. This can bring the time down to 5-6 hours. As with all things sourdough, patience is key.

Yukone:
100g bread flour
170g cold water

Mix the flour and water in a 10” skillet and mix over medium heat until enough moisture has evaporated so that it looks like mashed potatoes (roughly 2 minutes). Allow to cool for 30 minutes before making the dough.

Bagels:

295 g bread flour
15 g sugar
9 g salt
40g room temperature water
180g prepared starter
Yukone
1 oz malt syrup, for boiling

  1. Mix bread flour and sugar together in a large bowl. Mix water and starter together, mix in with the flour-sugar mix and the yukone. Mix until the dough is mostly hydrated but still slightly shaggy. Sprinkle salt over the top and let rest for about 15 minutes.
  2. Mix dough in the bowl with a sturdy spatula until the dough loses some of its shaggy texture. Then turn out on a clean and un-floured surface to knead with your hands.
  3. Knead dough for 5 minutes, it will be pretty sticky at first. After about 2 minutes of kneading, wash your hands so that there are no dough remnants on them and you will find that the dough will begin to regain its structure.
  4. Divide dough into 6 pieces for larger bagels, or 8 pieces for smaller ones. If you want to relive your childhood, you can even follow these directions to make mini bagels for bagel bites.
  5. Shape pieces into tight balls by rolling them on the counter, you can look at the original recipe for a video tutorial. Cover loosely with plastic wrap and let sit for 15 minutes.
  6. Perform the final shaping on your bagels, either using the stretch-and-poke or roll-and-loop method. I would recommend roll-and-loop, but it is entirely up to you and what you feel comfortable with.
  7. Place shaped bagels on a well-greased, parchment-lined half sheet pan, cover loosely with plastic and leave in the fridge overnight for 8-12 hours. Allow the bagels to rise at room temp for 2-3 hours before boiling.
  8. Preheat the oven to 425F(218C) and make sure the rack is in the lower-middle position of the oven.
  9. Fill a large stainless steel pot with about 3 inches of water and add the malt syrup. Bring water to a boil and add the bagels into the pot, two or three at a time. Your bagels should float, if they do not give them a little nudge to make sure they haven’t stuck to the bottom of the pot and they should rise right up. Boil for 30 seconds on each side. Pat briefly with a paper towel, and pace on a parchment-lined half sheet pan.
  10. If you want to add toppings to your bagels (sesame seeds are my favorite), you can fill a bowl with your preferred topping and dip the top of the bagel in. The toppings should stick right to the bagel.
  11. Bake bagels until they are blistered and browned, 20-25 minutes, cool for 15 minutes before breaking into them. Top with your favorite condiments and store the leftovers in a paper bag for up to 48 hours.

Enjoy, and feel free to message me with any questions or problems you encounter.

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Bagel on, my friends.

For the Love of Bagels

 

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My favorite bagel combo is sesame seed bagel with cream cheese, lox, capers, red onion and tomato.

Want to get straight to baking? Find the recipe here!

Being from Los Angeles, I cannot say that I am the authority on what constitutes a perfect bagel. That being said, I love bagels. I have fond memories of my sister and I rewarding ourselves with a trip to the “bagelry,” as we had termed the local bagel shop, after coming off a hike. I have been guilty of bribing my husband with bagels in order to convince him to accompany me to the Hollywood Farmer’s Market as my personal pack mule of specially cheeses and heirloom produce. When I visited my best friend in New York, my only required plan was that we got bagels, piled high with lox and cream cheese. She ultimately improved upon the plan with the purchase of a couple of tall-boys and a suggestion to picnic in Central Park. As we sat there in the sun, my brain still foggy from my Red-Eye flight, savoring our bagels, and surreptitiously sipping our beers, I was pretty certain I had reached peak-happiness.

So, imagine my despair upon realizing that while France has a veritable cornucopia of delicious breads to offer, the French ultimately fail when it comes to the bagel. There are no shortage of shops offering bagels and it is a common staple on brunch menus, but they just do not hit the spot. They are generally chewy to the point of jaw exhaustion or so dry that no condiments can help. They often taste like play-doh, and they crust is seriously lacking when it comes to the crispness that makes the bagel a comprehensive sensory experience.
I had accepted that my life would have to be lived without bagels for the duration of my time in Paris. I was content to fill this gap with the readily accessible pastries that the French have perfected. I could not, in good conscience, complain about my ability to pop into one of the many boulongeries that pepper my walk to school and purchase a perfect buttery croissant for breakfast with pocket change.

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Just kidding, I still really missed bagels.

Then, in late January, Serious Eats’s resident “Pastry Wizard,” Stella Parks, also known as The Brave Tart, posted a brilliant bagel recipe that utilized the Japanese method of yukone to keep bagels fresh for 48 hours. The extended freshness of these bagels makes the 36-hour preparation process worthwhile, and I realized that the answers to my prayers had been answered! As I had just started to cultivate my wild-yeast, I saw the perfect opportunity to put the yeasties to work by altering Parks’s recipe to create a sourdough version.

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So dense.

For my first attempt, I made Parks’s version and my own sourdough adaption at the same time, and while Parks’s bagels came out beautifully, the sourdough iteration came out tragically dense and I had to classify them as a failure. This was a result of a few things: my starter was not far too young, and I did not use enough of it. This was my first time converting a recipe with commercial yeast and there are no good guides online about how to do this, so I was basically flying blind.

Luckily, I was able to get the formula right the second time. I use a 100% hydration starter, so when replacing commercial yeast with the starter, I had to consider the fact that I was fundamentally altering the chemistry of the recipe by adding flour and water to the mix. Thus, I had to adjust the flour and water amounts in the regular recipe in order to make sure that I maintained close to the original hydration level of the dough. Park’s recipe has a total of 455g flour and 270g water (including the yukone), this works out to a dough with 59% hydration.  I don’t have a set formula for how much starter to replace within a recipe with commercial yeast, but upon looking at other sourdough bagel recipes, I decided that I probably didn’t want the starter to make up much more than 20-25% of the total combined flour-water weight of the recipe and chose to go with 180g of starter. I also decided to bring up the moisture level slightly, amounting to a 60% hydration dough as I felt that the starter would benefit from more liquid. This makes for a slightly sticky dough, but it is still very workable.

Another change I made to this recipe was that I hand-knead this dough. I chose to do this for a few reasons:

  1. I really like kneading by hand, it’s a really meditative process.
  2. I couldn’t bring all of my kitchen appliances with me to France, and I have not invested in a stand-mixer or food processor that I think would have the capability to handle this dough.

I don’t think that hand-kneading caused any significant changes to the dough, but I would recommend a sturdy stand-mixer over the food-processor method that Parks recommends for her recipe. I worry that the added hydration to this dough would make it hard for a food processor to handle.

In addition to hand-kneading, I actually had better luck with allowing my bagels to do a cold fermentation overnight (8-12 hours) and then finished proofing them in a warm oven (if you have a proofing drawer this would work perfectly) for 2-3 hours. For some reason the wild yeast responded better to this than a full cold fermentation.
I also found that the sourdough version of these bagels benefits greatly from a roll-and-loop forming technique. This is more difficult than the stretch-and-poke method, but watch a few YouTube videos to see how different people approach the method, and you should be able to get it after a few tries. The poke method works fine, but there is a difference between how the two bagels turn out.

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Left is stretch-and-poke method, right is roll-and-loop. The roll-and-loop method creates a more even, and slightly more open crumb.

If you don’t want to take the time to create a sourdough starter, Parks’ recipe is beautiful and she has a great write up on her methods. I first discovered her after I was discouraged by all the recipes on French macarons that basically said a perfect meringue could only be made if the baker was able to balance an egg on her head and the moon was within the first two days of waning. Her post on macarons gave me the courage to try again after so many failures and because of her attention to detail in explaining technique, they came out flawlessly! In the world of endless online recipes, Stella Parks is winning in the pastry department.

Oh, and she’s working on a book that you can pre-order here!

We the People.

 

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“Scene at the Signing of the Constitution” Howard Chandler Christy, 1787.

There have been a lot of concerning events that have happened during the first two weeks of Donald Trump’s presidency, and while they each pose very real and immediate threats the the liberties of the American people, there is a much bigger problem going on. I don’t think the leader of the free world understands how the Constitution works. For that matter, I don’t think the majority of the American public understands this document.

I am not saying this to declare that the US is full of ignorant bumpkins that don’t even know how their government works. I am sure everyone has read it, or at least parts of it. I am sure that most US citizens know about the three branches of government, and the Bill of Rights and were at some point assigned to memorize the Preamble, but most have probably not taken the time to actively understand it.

I don’t blame you. The original text is about ten pages long, and written in eighteenth-century English. Its purpose is to be administrative and as a result, it can be very dry.

I studied the “Philosophical and historical foundations of the American political system” as a part of what is probably the nerdiest and best academic team ever invented, it even has a long-winded name to match: We the People, the Citizen and the Constitution. (We called it the Constitution Team for short.)  I spent a year closely studying the Constitution, my undergraduate study was focused on the American Revolutionary Period and the Early Republic, and even I still have trouble with it.

So, I decided to spend a nice Saturday re-reading the Constitution. To my surprise, it was difficult to find the full text on Google. In fact, the whitehouse.gov link wouldn’t even load. This is indicative of many things. Most of which, are probably conspiracies invented in my own head, but what it is really indicative of is that each American citizen needs to seriously sit down and read it.

Print out the original text. Take the time to consider it as a document that was meant to be actively understood, not wrapped up and delivered to you as a totem.

Consider the history behind every sentence, every word. Consider the people writing it, the political atmosphere,  the social, economic, racial, and any other context that you can imagine. Stop, think, discuss, progress.

And, if you’re interested, I’m going to be taking the time to write up my own analysis, and I’ll be posting it here. I encourage you to join me, send me your questions, comments, concerns, and disagreeing opinions. Now, more than ever, we need to be engaging the US Constitution and talking about it seriously and productively.

You can find it here.

Winter is Coming, so make some Bone Broth

 

Archie, begging for trash soup.

As many of you may have noticed from my overreaction to the cold a couple of weeks ago, temperatures are dropping in Paris.

I honestly have no concept of how winter works. Los Angeles winters are when everyone breaks out their sweaters, but have to take them off by noon because it is too hot. Sandals are still an acceptable footwear option. Scarves and hats are accessories, and puffy jackets are too hideous to be considered.

I broke out the puffy jacket. I didn’t care that it was shapeless and transformed me into a human marshmallow. I put it on and realized that it is the warmest thing I own, and there are about 6 more months of cold weather to come. Now is not the time for vanity.

My solution to this is to make bone broth. The glorious trash soup that hipsters will pay a stupid amount of money for.

The recipe for bone broth might as well be pour water over trash and herbs, bring to a simmer and forget about it. This may not sound appetizing, but it is delicious.

Now would also be a good time to fess up and admit that I make my dog’s food. This involves skinning and boiling 2 chickens, and then adding veggies, rice and lentils. It also means that I have a lot of chicken carcasses that I am loathe to throw away without using them first.

So, after I have stripped the chicken from the bones, I roast them and boil them with the skin from the chicken, vegetable scraps, herbs and a few spices. It is by no means glamorous, but bone broth shouldn’t be.

You can always go out and buy the ingredients for your broth, but I find it best to save up scraps from the week (either in the freezer, or in the fridge). This way you are saving money, and cutting back on food waste.

Also, don’t feel like you have to drink the broth straight. The flavor can be a little overwhelming, but it can also be used like a broth concentrate. If I am cooking anything that calls for chicken broth, I simply dilute my bone broth with water, the flavor is far superior to anything store bought.

Bone Broth Recipe

Bones from 2 chickens (skin too, if you have it)
Vegetable scraps (or whole vegetables)
-Carrot peels
-Onion  and garlic skins (I used some leftover leeks for this batch)
-Celery leaves
-Parsley stems
2 Bay leafs
3 sprigs fresh thyme or rosemary
10 peppercorns
2 tbs vinegar of your choice
Salt to taste

  1. Preheat your oven to 450 degrees F.
  2. Place your bones on a foil lined tray. I generally don’t boil my bones first because they are coming from boiled chicken, but if you are using raw bones, boil them first. Put tray in the oven, for 15 min.
  3. turn the bones over and roast until they are a nice golden brown. I usually check every 5 minutes.
  4. Place the bones in a large stock pot, along with the rest of the ingredients. Cover with water, and bring to a boil.
  5. Reduce to a simmer, and let simmer for up to 12 hours. Your broth should congeal when it is cold.

Enjoy!